Cafe mocha

A caffe mocha or cafe mocha[note 1] (pron.: /?m?k.?/ or /?mo?k.?/) is a variant of a caffe latte, inspired by the Turin Coffee beverage Bicerin.[citation needed] Like a caffe latte, it is based on espresso and hot milk, but with added chocolate, typically in the form of sweet cocoa powder, although many varieties use chocolate syrup. Mochas can contain dark or milk chocolate. Cafe mocha, in its most basic formulation, can also be referred to as hot chocolate with (e.g. a shot of) espresso added. Like cappuccino, cafe mochas typically contain the well-known milk froth on top, although, as is common with hot chocolate, they are sometimes served with whipped cream instead. They are usually topped with a dusting of either cinnamon or cocoa powder and marshmallows may also be added on top for flavor and decoration. A variant is white cafe mocha, made with white chocolate instead of milk or dark. There are also variants of the drink that mix the two syrups; this mixture is referred to by several names, including black and white mocha, tan mocha, marble mocha, tuxedo mocha and zebra. Cafe mocha takes its name from the Red Sea coastal town of Mocha, Yemen, which as far back as the fifteenth century was a dominant exporter of coffee, especially to areas around the Arabian Peninsula. The caffeine content is approximately 10.9 mg/oz (370 mg/L), which is 175 mg for a 16 oz glass.[1] [edit]Mocha coffee beans Mocha is also used to describe a type of coffee bean. Smaller and rounder than most other varieties, these beans are derived from the coffee species Coffea arabica, which is native to Ethiopia and Yemen. Although the beans originally shipped from the port of Mocha were thought to have had a chocolate-like taste, current mocha beans from Yemen do not.[2] Thus, "Mocha coffee" can refer either to the coffee-with-chocolate drink, or simply to coffee brewed with mocha beans. Cocoa solids are the low-fat component of chocolate. When sold as an end product, it may also be called cocoa powder, cocoa, and cacao. In contrast, the fatty component of chocolate is cocoa butter. Cocoa butter is 50% to 57% of the weight of cocoa beans and gives chocolate its characteristic melting properties.[1] Cocoa liquor is the melted combination of cocoa butter and c coa solids. Cocoa solids are obtained by extraction from the cocoa bean. Cocoa solids can range from a light brown to a deep reddish brown color. The varying color corresponds to the pH value of the cocoa. Safe, acceptable pH for cocoa ranges from 5.4 to 8.1 depending on how processed the cocoa powder is. Cocoa with a pH of 5.45.8 are considered natural powders and have a light brown color. Lightly alkalized cocoa solids have a pH of 6.87.2 and are a darker brown color. Moderately alkalized cocoa solids have a pH of 7.27.5 and have a deep reddish brown color, and heavily alkalized powders with a pH of 7.58.1 have dark red and black colors.[2] [edit]Nutrition Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 954 kJ (228 kcal) Carbohydrates 57.90 g Fat 13.70 g Protein 19.60 g Water 3.00 g Calcium 128 mg (13%) Iron 13.86 mg (107%) Magnesium 499 mg (141%) Manganese 3.837 mg (183%) Phosphorus 734 mg (105%) Potassium 1524 mg (32%) Sodium 21 mg (1%) Zinc 6.81 mg (72%) Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database Cocoa powder contains several minerals including Calcium, Copper, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium and Zinc. All of these minerals are found in greater quantities in cocoa powder than either cocoa butter or cocoa liquor.[3] Cocoa solids also contain 230 mg of caffeine and 2057 mg of theobromine per 100g, which are mostly absent from the other components of the cocoa bean.[4] [edit]Flavonoids Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids, a type of phenolic. The amount of flavonoids depends on the amount of processing and manufacturing the cocoa powder undergoes, but cocoa powder can contain up to 10% its weight in flavonoids.[3] Flavanols are one of six compounds further classified as flavonoids. Flavanols, which are also found in fruits and vegetables, are linked to certain health benefits linked to coronary heart disease and stroke. The topic of how flavanols benefit cardiovascular health is still under debate. It has been suggested that the flavanols may take part in mechanisms such as nitric oxide and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet effects.[5] Benefiting these mechanisms may improve endothelial function, lipid levels, blood pressure and insulin resistance.