The advancement of coffee in Colombia

It was during the 19th century that the transformation of the Colombian economy took place, going from a system of mules, tobacco and gold into a system based on coffee, railways and the banks, which created the favorable conditions for a robust economic growth.[5] The initiative for the development, investment and expansion of coffee growing in Colombia came from a group of national dignitaries and pioneers, who devoted their personal talents and resources into a venture of slow turnaround and high risk. Especially Colombian magnate Mr. Carlos Pinzon, virtually the founder of Colombia's modern coffee export business. In many ways, Mr. Carlos Pinzon?s coffee empire was the precursor of the present-day Coffee Grower's Federation, overlording consignments, tying up export orders, arranging insurance, and, in many cases, financing.[3] [6] From 1870 on, large coffee plantations began to flourish, and this translated into a vigorous expansion of the nation's economy in international trade and commerce. The Colombian coffee industry began to operate as a powerful engine for the development of the nation's economy.[7] In 1879, the Colombian Congress passed the Coffee Act, known as the Law 29, by which the government would foment and sponsor the growing of coffee in the provinces better qualified for it, according to climate and terroir. As a result of this promotional effort, the production of coffee in Colombia grew enormously, which between 1880 and 1920 went from 107,000 to 2.4 million bags per year (60 k lograms per bag).[8] By 1920, small growers had done more to develop the industry than any other group. For many decades they planted, processed and sold their coffee virtually unnoticed by Colombia's government. On the other hand, the large growers began voicing their opinions and grievances against the Government through the Agricultural Society of Colombia (Sociedad de Agricultores de Colombia).[9] By the start of the 20th century, there were about 750 coffee farms and plantations. Between 1910 and 1932, this number had increased to more than 150,000 farms and plantations, according to the Coffee Census of 1932. North Santander (in Spanish, Norte de Santander) is a department of Colombia. It is in the north of the country, bordering Venezuela. Its capital is Cucuta, one of the major cities of Colombia. North Santander Department is bordered by Venezuela to the east and north, by Santander Department and Boyaca Department to the south, and by South Santander Department and Cesar Department to the east.[2] The official Department name in Spanish is "Departamento de Norte de Santander" (North Santander Department) in honor to the Colombian military and political leader Francisco de Paula Santander. North Santander Department is located in the northwestern zone of the Colombian Andean Region. The area of present day Norte de Santander played an important role in the history of Colombia, during the War of Independence from Spain when Congress gave origin to the Greater Colombia in Villa del Rosario.